Trevenzuolo

GEOGRAFY

Trevenzuolo, with its surface of 26.94 km², it is located at an average altitude of 31 m above sea level. It is 25 km south-west of Verona. The river Tione flows through the town and its fractions are Fagnano and Roncolevà. It borders the comuni of Erbè, Isola della Scala, Nogarole Rocca, Vigasio (Verona), Castelbelforte and Roverbella (Mantova).

ETYMOLOGY

The origins of the name Trevenzuolo are Roman. It comes from the Latin words Trebentius or Terventius.

HISTORY

The river Tione plays a fundamental role in the developement and the history of Trevenzuolo. It flows from north-west to south-east, gathering the waters of several other rivers originating in the nearby springs. The first evidences of human settlements date back to the bronze age and are closely related to the river, as they were found around its banks.

Specific archaeological research, undertaken since the 1970s led to the discovery of bowls and decorated dolia, ollas, the small statue of a bovine and an enigmatic adorned tablet. In this and other places there are then clear traces of the Roman age, such as fragments of Laterizio (the primary resource or Roman bricks) and other less valuable materials. In 1830 an inscription was discovered, it was dedicated to Tiberio Claudio Augustano, a patrician that lived in the first century and owned a brick-kiln for Laterizi (roman Brick). The presence of kilns related to the availability of the source of the main material is also observed during the middle ages, when Trevenzuolo belonged to the Veronese monastery of San Zeno, while the current fraction of Fagnano was property of the Canonici of the Cattedrale of Verona. The fraction of Roncolevà grew after the reclamation of swampy lands and woods, undertaken between the 7th and the 8th century.

The town's name is recorded for the first time in an imperial document of 972. In 1145 it is mentioned as the property of the monastery of San Zeno, and later of the Comune di Verona, which provided the town with a castle and fortification to prevent the raids of the Mantovani. In 1241 Trevenzuolo becomes theatre for the battle in which Ezzelino da Romano defeated the Guelfi of Mantova. The main portion of the town grew and developed around the castle. The fortification represented a much yearned strategical point, as it allowed control on the river Tione, and became a place of violent clashes between Verona and Mantova. The control of the town went from Veneto to Lombardia for a long time going through the lordships of the Scaligeri, the Visconti and the Carrara, due to its proximity to the border. After a sequence of warlike events the power finally ended in the hands of the signoria Veneziana. During the Venetian domination a consistent amount of the land owned by the ecclesiastic orders, passed in the hands of noble families and wealthy traders. The land, already scourged by the plague of 1630, witnessed and suffered the great wars of the late 1700s, when France and Austria fought over the lands of Mantova and Verona. Between 1814 and 1866, Trevenzuolo as the rest of Veneto were under Austrian control, until their annexation to the kingdom of Italy.

ART

Most of Trevenzuolo's town centre grew around the castle on the Tione, and became a widely desired strategical place. With the coming of Venezia, the castle lost its defensive role, and suffered the neglect of the inhabitants, who turned it into ruins using it as a construction supply source over the following years. A great amount of the land owned by the religious orders ended up in the hands of lords and traders. On this lands there is a remarkable artistic heritage in the shape of: corte Giona, corte Dossi, corte Chiara, corte Spolverini, corte Pellegrini, corte Palazzon, palazzo Allegri, palazzo Tretti, Palazzo Zanella, the old Mill, the parish of Trevenzuolo, of Fagiano and of Roncolevà.

ECONOMY

Trevenzuolo's agriculture is founded on family run farms focused on the traditional grains cultivation, along with radicchio, strawberries and melon.  Also produced here is the rice quality "Nano Viaolne Veronese", farmed in the lands of the Veronese Valley and watered with spring waters. There are also cattle farms and small industries linked to agriculture and livestock.